According to NACE, the worldwide corrosion authority, the total annual cost of corrosion to the Oil & Gas production industry is estimated to be $1.372 billion per annum. This massive cost to this vital industry sector can be minimized through a combination of effective corrosion management programs and by working with corrosion testing experts like Element to ensure the assets deployed are safe and will perform as expected once deployed in the field.
Element is a recognised world-leader in the provision of corrosion testing services to the global oil and gas sector. Our platform of specialist corrosion testing centres of excellence, located in Houston, Dudley, Breda and Abu Dhabi, have the right combination of technical expertise, capabilities and accreditations to support the oil and gas sector to help solve this immense corrosion challenge.
Our corrosion testing services cover a full range of environmental testing simulations, including pipeline corrosion testing for sour and non-sour applications; hydrogen testing; pitting; full ring tests; as well as SCC tests.
Our laboratories specialise in the qualification of materials for “sour” service applications and offer standard Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC), Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) tests and also more specialised Full Ring and Stress Orientated Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC) tests and follow such international testing standards and protocols as ASTM, IP MIL and NACE.
Through expert analysis of simulation exposure data, we help our customers to reduce the future risk of damage to pipelines and other key infrastructure assets and to ultimately make certain that assets will perform as expected once deployed in the field.
Our corrosion testing services are carried out in state-of-the-art laboratories that cater for a wide range of industry requirements, including:
Autoclave Corrosion Testing Facilities
High pressure high temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) testing is undertaken in the Group’s numerous autoclave facilities. Autoclaves are also available for conducting Slow Strain Rate Testing (SSRT) and Cyclic Slow Strain Rate Testing (CSSRT) for the evaluation of the hydrogen embrittlement behaviour of carbon steels and corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs).
Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Testing
Pitting and crevice corrosion testing for quality control and fitness for purpose studies are undertaken using ambient pressure and elevated pressure (autoclave) exposure tests and electrochemical techniques.
Sulphide Stress Cracking Testing
We offer sour service materials qualification testing in accordance with the NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 as well as industry specifications and requirements as one of our specialized areas.This standard recommends testing to NACE TM0177 Method A, B, C and D tests for resistance of carbon / low alloy steels and CRAs to Sulphide stress corrosion cracking (SSC). These tests are performed in our accredited laboratories worldwide under the standard sour conditions or to specific field conditions.
- Tensile test in accordance with NACE TM0177, Method A
- Bent-Beam test in accordance with NACE TM0177, Method B and/or ISO 7539-2
- C-Ring test in accordance with NACE TM0177, Method C
- Double-Cantilever-Beam (DCB) test in accordance with NACE TM0177, Method D
HP/HT (High Pressure/High Temperature) Testing
Autoclaves are used to simulate the high pressure, high temperature conditions encountered downhole and in refinery operations. We have a range of these vessels with capacities in the range of 0.25 to 40 liters. These facilities permit bent beam tests and C-ring tests up to 500ºC and pressures up to 34.5 MPa in sour environments. This equipment can also be used be used for HP/HT corrosion rate studies and for evaluation of corrosion inhibitor performance under harsh conditions.
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Testing
NACE TM0284 is a method for evaluating the resistance of pipeline and pressure vessel plate steels to HIC caused by hydrogen absorption from aqueous sulfide corrosion. HIC tests are carried out in our dedicated laboratories. Failed test pieces are examined for crack sensitivity ratio, crack length ratio and crack thickness ratio using our optical microscopes.
Pitting Corrosion/Crevice Corrosion Testing
Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion forms of localized corrosion attack are the cause of many failures in oil and gas operations. The study of steel resistant to this can be carried out in oxidizing chloride environments as per ASTM G48 Standard. Several methods are described in ASTM G48 including critical pitting temperature and critical crevice temperature. Electrochemical studies to look at critical pitting (CPP) and crevice potentials (CCP) is also a tool for evaluation of these materials resistance to this type of corrosion.
Electrochemical test techniques for corrosion rate determination, crevice and pitting corrosion resistance are in use for many applications. The most common use of this testing using Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is for inhibitor evaluation. In our laboratories we can perform full inhibitor evaluations from compatibility testing through to performance testing in Bubble test, Dynamic Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) testing and even flow loops. Electrochemical method are performed to international standards such as ASTM G5, ASTM G59 polarization resistance measurements and ASTM G61 cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements, which gives a measure of pitting and crevice corrosion resistance).
Corrosion Rate and Sensitization Testing
General corrosion rates calculated in mm per year can be performed to customers’ requirements (specified time and solution), using mass loss techniques described in both ASTM and NACE standards such as ASTM G28 and NACE TM0169.
Salt Spray Corrosion Testing
Salt spray and cyclic humidity/temperature corrosion testing can be done to such international specifications as ASTM B117 or to client specific requirements on test coupons, paints, platings, oil and plastics.
Slow Strain Rate SSR Testing
NACE TM0198 is a method used for quick screening Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) materials for resistance to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures in sour oilfield production environments, under constantly increasing strain rates.
Cyclic or Ripple SSRT can also be carried out to provide information on performance of materials under cyclic load around the AYS of the material.
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