Hardness is a characteristic that applies to a range of materials—metals and nonmetals alike— and is defined as the resistance of the material to deformation. Element experts measure hardness according to the requirements of the material and its applications with equipment calibrated to hardness scales.
Services and Standards
Devised in 1812 and based on relative resistance to scratching, this test is now used mainly to identify minerals in the field.
The oldest method still in common use, this instrument employs an indentor ball. Brinell hardness testing is frequently used to measure hardness of castings and forgings.
Using a ball or cone shaped indentor, Rockwell hardness machines simplify hardness measurement by providing a hardness number visible immediately after removing the load.
Vickers and Knoop Hardness
Vickers microhardness testing measures film coatings or surface hardness of case-hardened parts with a diamond-pyramid-shaped indentor; with Knoop the indentor is rhombic-pyramid-shaped for longer but shallower indentations
Commonly used for soft polymers or elastomers, a durometer tester uses a calibrated spring for a cone-shaped or sphere shaped indentor foot.
This is a penetration test using a sharp steel point under a spring load and is usually used on rigid plastics and resins.
Using portable versions of Rockwell testers or impactor vibration instruments, destructive testing of large installations or equipment can be carried out.
Hot hardness testing for metals and coatings
Materials and Products
- stainless steel hardness testing
- tool steel hardness testing
- carbon steel hardness testing
- aluminum hardness testing
- copper hardness testing
- titanium hardness testing
- die steel hardness testing
- other metal hardness testing
- die hardness testing
- valve hardness testing
- valve stem hardness testing
- valve seat hardness testing
- cylinder hardness testing
- tool hardness testing
- weld hardness testing
- many more
ASTM D2240, ASTM D3363, ASTM E 10, ASTM E 18, ASTM E 92, ASTM E 140, ASTM E 384, ASTM E 566, ASTM E 703, ASTM F 837/F837M, ASTM F 879/F879M, ASTM F 912/F912M
EN 1043-1, EN 1043-2, EN 10003-1, EN 10109-1, EN ISO 6506, EN ISO 6508
General Motors North America
International Organization for Standardization
ISO 3738-1, ISO 4507, ISO 4516, ISO 6507-1, ISO 6507-2, ISO 6508
Aerospace Industries Association
NASM 1312- 6
Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut
NEN-EN 1043-2, NEN-EN-ISO 6506-1, NEN-EN-ISO 6507-1, NEN-EN-ISO 6508-1
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